HPPD: Ligand- and Target-Based Virtual Screening on a Herbicide Target
M. Lopez-Ramos and F. Perruccio, "HPPD: Ligand- and Target-Based Virtual Screening on a Herbicide Target", J. Chem. Inf. Model., 2010, 50 (5), pp 801-814
Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) has proven to be a very successful target for the development of herbicides with bleaching properties, and today HPPD inhibitors are well established in the agrochemical market. Syngenta has a long history of HPPD-inhibitor research, and HPPD was chosen as a case study for the validation of diverse ligand- and target-based virtual screening approaches to identify compounds with inhibitory properties. Two-dimensional extended connectivity fingerprints, three-dimensional shape-based tools (ROCS, EON, and Phase-shape) and a pharmacophore approach (Phase) were used as ligand-based methods; Glide and Gold were used as target-based. Both the virtual screening utility and the scaffold-hopping ability of the screening tools were assessed. Particular emphasis was put on the specific pitfalls to take into account for the design of a virtual screening campaign in an agrochemical context, as compared to a pharmaceutical environment.